Leadership is the study and practice of leading individuals, teams and organizations.
Within a bureaucratic structure, leadership is sometimes referred to as "management". Burns (1978) makes the distinction that "management" is a transactional process (characterized by a focus on processes, contingent rewards and management by exception), whereas "leadership" is a transformational process which focuses on charisma, personal relationships and creativity.
Max Weber created the Tripartite classification of authority in 1922, delineating three possible sources for a leader's perceived legitimacy. (Weber's use of authority is equivalent to leadership in the present sense):
- Traditional authority is derived from an established set of cultural traditions (e.g. patriarchy, monarchy),
- Legal authority is derived from the modern state's legal and constitutional framework, and
- Charismatic authority is derived from an individual's moral character and the perception that they have an ability to lead and a clear vision.
- Burns, James MacGregor. Leadership. New York, NY: Harper and Row, 1978.
- Wikipedia - Leadership (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leadership)
- Wikipedia - Tripartite classification of authority (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tripartite_classification_of_authority)